Embodiment Scale

During last year, I have been developing a way to evaluate embodiment experience in videogames. I will present the scale development study in the Academic Mindtrek ’16 (Tampere, Oct 17th to 19th, 2016).

The scale is based on work by Longo et al. (2008) who developed a psychometric scale for evaluation embodiment in rubber hand illusion.

Embodiment scale (7-point Likert-scale, strongly disagree–strongly agree) with two subscales:

Controller ownership subscale

  • I perceived the game controller as a part of my body
  • perceived the game controller as an extension of my body
  • It seemed like the game controller had disappeared

Player-character embodiment

  • It seemed like I was in the location where my character was
  • I perceived the character I control as an extension of my body
  • It seemed like the character I controlled was I

The average of all items or average of subscales separately can be used as the embodiment score.


  • M. R. Longo, F. Schüür, M. P. Kammers, M. Tsakiris,and P. Haggard. What is embodiment? A psychometric approach. Cognition, 107(3):978–998, June 2008.

My forthcoming paper

  • Lankoski, P. (2016). Embodiment in videogames. In: Academic Mindtrek ’16 (

    AcademicMindtrek’16, October 17-18, 2016, Tampere, Finland). New York: ACM Press. DOI=10.1145/2994310.2994320. ( Version on my blog)

Published by lankoski

Petri Lankoski, D.Arts, is a Associate Professor in Game Studies at the school of Communication, Media and IT at the Södertörn University, Sweden. His research focuses on game design, game characters, role-playing, and playing experience. Petri has been concentrating on single-player video games but researched also (multi-player) pnp and live-action role-playing games. This blog focuses on his research on games and related things.

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