I reread Brühlmann and Schmid’s (2015) article where they evaluate PENS scale and noticed that they found issues with the reversed worded (E1) and argued that the scale quality benefit removing or rephrasing the item. I used all presence scale items in my embodiment analysis published in MindTrek.
Here are some more (explorative) analyses from the embodiment data used the Embodiment in character-based video games.
I collected also workload data using raw Nasa TLX when gathering data for EFA and CFA, but then I did not use workload data in analyses. My assumption was that workload would correlate with the embodiment, but did not look at this.
Researchers demonstrate that our brain responds to social rejection in a similar way with physical pain. This research add more evidence for embodiment hypothesis. The authors write: “They [the results] are also consistent with research on “embodiment,” which suggests that somatosensory processing is integral to the experience of emotion.”
Krossa, Bermana, Mischelb, Smithb & Wagerd (2011), “Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain”, in PNAS 108: 15, pp6270-6275, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1102693108 .