Presence and embodiment

I reread Brühlmann and Schmid’s (2015) article where they evaluate PENS scale and noticed that they found issues with the reversed worded (E1) and argued that the scale quality benefit removing or rephrasing the item. I used all presence scale items in my embodiment analysis published in MindTrek.

If I calculate presence without E1 item and run the analysis again the regression results look as follows:

 Presence ~ Embodiment + Trial  
(Intercept)              -0.91 ***
embodiment                0.57 ***
Num. obs.                 88 
Num. groups: id           31 
Var: id (Intercept)       0.38 
Var: Residual             0.15 
*** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05

Embodiment and presence have a bit stronger relation without the reversed presence item.

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